【注解】： １、汉皇：指唐明皇。 ２、御宇：治理天下。 ３、姊妹句：杨贵妃受宠后，其姊妹三人皆封夫人。 ４、渔阳鼙鼓：指安禄山在渔阳起兵叛乱。 ５、薄：临近、靠近。 ６、信：任凭。 ７、碧落：道家称天空为碧落。 ８、玉扃：门闩。 ９、迤逦开：一路敞开。 １０、阑干：纵横。
【评析】： 这首诗是作者的名篇，作于元和元年（806）。全诗形象地叙述了唐玄宗与杨贵 妃的爱情悲剧。诗人借历史人物和传说，创造了一个回旋宛转的动人故事，并通过塑 造的艺术形象，再现了现实生活的真实，感染了千百年来的读者。
诗的主题是“长恨”。从“汉皇重色思倾国”起第一部分，叙述安史之乱前，玄 宗如何好色、求色，终于得到了杨氏。而杨氏由于得宠，鸡犬升天。并反复渲染玄宗 之纵欲，沉于酒色，不理朝政，因而酿成了“渔阳鼙鼓动地来”的安史之乱。这是悲 剧的基础，也是“长恨”的内因。
“六军不发无奈何”起为第二部分，具体描述了安史之乱起后，玄宗的仓皇出逃 西蜀，引起了“六军”驻马要求除去祸国殃民的贵妃“宛转娥眉马前死”是悲剧的形 成。这是故事的关键情节。杨氏归阴后，造成玄宗寂寞悲伤和缠绵悱恻的相思。诗以 酸恻动人的语调，描绘了玄宗这一“长恨”的心情，揪人心痛，催人泪下。
“临邛道士鸿都客”起为第三部分，写玄宗借道士帮助于虚无缥渺的蓬莱仙山中 寻到了杨氏的踪影。在仙景中再现了杨氏“带雨梨花”的姿容，并以含情脉脉，托物 寄词，重申前誓，表示愿作“比翼鸟”、“连理枝”，进一步渲染了“长恨”的主 题。结局又以“天和地久有时尽，此恨绵绵无绝期”深化了主题，加重了“长恨”的 分量。
令人丁毅、方超在《（长恨歌）评价管窥》一文中认为，此诗是白居易借对历史 人物的咏叹，寄托自己的心情之作。文章说，诗人年轻时与出身普通人家的姑娘湘灵 相爱，但由于门第观念和风尚阻碍，没能正式结婚。分手时，诗人写了“不得哭，潜 别离；不得语，暗相思；两心之外无人知……彼此甘心无后期”的沉痛诗句。文章指 出，《长恨歌》作于作者婚前几个月，诗人为失去与湘灵相会之可能而痛苦。为此， 丁、方二人认为，《长恨歌》并不是对历史的记录与评价。“在天愿作比翼鸟，在地 愿为连理枝。天长地久有时尽，此恨绵绵无绝期”，正是诗人借前代帝妃的悲剧，抒 发自己的痛苦与深情。
从“诗言志”，“诗传情”上说，丁、方二人之说不无道理。但就作品所反映的 历史真实和社会意义以及千百年来的影响而言，不能不说它是历史的记录和对历史事 件的评价。至于白氏自身有爱情悲剧的经历，无疑有助于他对李杨爱情悲剧的体察和 分析，才使其诗写得肌理细腻，情真意切，赋予无穷的艺术魅力。
《长恨歌》《琵琶行》《赋得古原草送别》《钱塘湖春行》《暮江吟》《忆江南》《大林寺桃花》《同李十一醉忆元九》《直中书省》《长相思》《题岳阳楼》《观刈麦》《宫词》 《问刘十九》《买花》 《自河南经乱关内阻饥兄弟离散各在一处因望》
早年热心济世，强调诗歌的政治功能，并力求通俗，所作《新乐府》、《秦中吟》共六十首，确实做到了“唯歌生民病”、“句句必尽规”，与杜甫的“三吏”、“三别”同为著名的诗史。长篇叙事诗《长恨歌》、《琵琶行》则代表他艺术上的最高成就。中年在官场中受了挫折，“宦途自此心长别，世事从今口不开”，但仍写了许多好诗，为百姓做过许多好事，杭州西湖至今留着纪念他的白堤。晚年寄情山水，也写过一些小词。赠刘禹锡诗云： “古歌旧曲君休听， 听取新词《杨柳枝》”，可见他曾自度一些新词。其中《花非花》一首，颇具朦胧之美。
A SONG OF UNENDING SORROW
China's Emperor, craving beauty that might shake an empire,
Was on the throne for many years, searching, never finding,
Till a little child of the Yang clan, hardly even grown,
Bred in an inner chamber, with no one knowing her,
But with graces granted by heaven and not to be concealed,
At last one day was chosen for the imperial household.
If she but turned her head and smiled, there were cast a hundred spells,
And the powder and paint of the Six Palaces faded into nothing.
...It was early spring. They bathed her in the FlowerPure Pool,
Which warmed and smoothed the creamy-tinted crystal of her skin,
And, because of her languor, a maid was lifting her
When first the Emperor noticed her and chose her for his bride.
The cloud of her hair, petal of her cheek, gold ripples of her crown when she moved,
Were sheltered on spring evenings by warm hibiscus curtains;
But nights of spring were short and the sun arose too soon,
And the Emperor, from that time forth, forsook his early hearings
And lavished all his time on her with feasts and revelry,
His mistress of the spring, his despot of the night.
There were other ladies in his court, three thousand of rare beauty,
But his favours to three thousand were concentered in one body.
By the time she was dressed in her Golden Chamber, it would be almost evening;
And when tables were cleared in the Tower of Jade, she would loiter, slow with wine.
Her sisters and her brothers all were given titles;
And, because she so illumined and glorified her clan,
She brought to every father, every mother through the empire,
Happiness when a girl was born rather than a boy.
...High rose Li Palace, entering blue clouds,
And far and wide the breezes carried magical notes
Of soft song and slow dance, of string and bamboo music.
The Emperor's eyes could never gaze on her enough-
Till war-drums, booming from Yuyang, shocked the whole earth
And broke the tunes of The Rainbow Skirt and the Feathered Coat.
The Forbidden City, the nine-tiered palace, loomed in the dust
From thousands of horses and chariots headed southwest.
The imperial flag opened the way, now moving and now pausing- -
But thirty miles from the capital, beyond the western gate,
The men of the army stopped, not one of them would stir
Till under their horses' hoofs they might trample those moth- eyebrows....
Flowery hairpins fell to the ground, no one picked them up,
And a green and white jade hair-tassel and a yellowgold hair- bird.
The Emperor could not save her, he could only cover his face.
And later when he turned to look, the place of blood and tears
Was hidden in a yellow dust blown by a cold wind.
... At the cleft of the Dagger-Tower Trail they crisscrossed through a cloud-line
Under Omei Mountain. The last few came.
Flags and banners lost their colour in the fading sunlight....
But as waters of Shu are always green and its mountains always blue,
So changeless was His Majesty's love and deeper than the days.
He stared at the desolate moon from his temporary palace.
He heard bell-notes in the evening rain, cutting at his breast.
And when heaven and earth resumed their round and the dragon car faced home,
The Emperor clung to the spot and would not turn away
From the soil along the Mawei slope, under which was buried
That memory, that anguish. Where was her jade-white face?
Ruler and lords, when eyes would meet, wept upon their coats
As they rode, with loose rein, slowly eastward, back to the capital.
...The pools, the gardens, the palace, all were just as before,
The Lake Taiye hibiscus, the Weiyang Palace willows;
But a petal was like her face and a willow-leaf her eyebrow --
And what could he do but cry whenever he looked at them?
...Peach-trees and plum-trees blossomed, in the winds of spring;
Lakka-foliage fell to the ground, after autumn rains;
The Western and Southern Palaces were littered with late grasses,
And the steps were mounded with red leaves that no one swept away.
Her Pear-Garden Players became white-haired
And the eunuchs thin-eyebrowed in her Court of PepperTrees;
Over the throne flew fire-flies, while he brooded in the twilight.
He would lengthen the lamp-wick to its end and still could never sleep.
Bell and drum would slowly toll the dragging nighthours
And the River of Stars grow sharp in the sky, just before dawn,
And the porcelain mandarin-ducks on the roof grow thick with morning frost
And his covers of kingfisher-blue feel lonelier and colder
With the distance between life and death year after year;
And yet no beloved spirit ever visited his dreams.
...At Lingqiong lived a Taoist priest who was a guest of heaven,
Able to summon spirits by his concentrated mind.
And people were so moved by the Emperor's constant brooding
That they besought the Taoist priest to see if he could find her.
He opened his way in space and clove the ether like lightning,
Up to heaven, under the earth, looking everywhere.
Above, he searched the Green Void, below, the Yellow Spring;
But he failed, in either place, to find the one he looked for.
And then he heard accounts of an enchanted isle at sea,
A part of the intangible and incorporeal world,
With pavilions and fine towers in the five-coloured air,
And of exquisite immortals moving to and fro,
And of one among them-whom they called The Ever True-
With a face of snow and flowers resembling hers he sought.
So he went to the West Hall's gate of gold and knocked at the jasper door
And asked a girl, called Morsel-of-Jade, to tell The Doubly- Perfect.
And the lady, at news of an envoy from the Emperor of China,
Was startled out of dreams in her nine-flowered, canopy.
She pushed aside her pillow, dressed, shook away sleep,
And opened the pearly shade and then the silver screen.
Her cloudy hair-dress hung on one side because of her great haste,
And her flower-cap was loose when she came along the terrace,
While a light wind filled her cloak and fluttered with her motion
As though she danced The Rainbow Skirt and the Feathered Coat.
And the tear-drops drifting down her sad white face
Were like a rain in spring on the blossom of the pear.
But love glowed deep within her eyes when she bade him thank her liege,
Whose form and voice had been strange to her ever since their parting --
Since happiness had ended at the Court of the Bright Sun,
And moons and dawns had become long in Fairy-Mountain Palace.
But when she turned her face and looked down toward the earth
And tried to see the capital, there were only fog and dust.
So she took out, with emotion, the pledges he had given
And, through his envoy, sent him back a shell box and gold hairpin,
But kept one branch of the hairpin and one side of the box,
Breaking the gold of the hairpin, breaking the shell of the box;
"Our souls belong together," she said, " like this gold and this shell --
Somewhere, sometime, on earth or in heaven, we shall surely
And she sent him, by his messenger, a sentence reminding him
Of vows which had been known only to their two hearts:
"On the seventh day of the Seventh-month, in the Palace of Long Life,
We told each other secretly in the quiet midnight world
That we wished to fly in heaven, two birds with the wings of one,
And to grow together on the earth, two branches of one tree."
Earth endures, heaven endures; some time both shall end,
While this unending sorrow goes on and on for ever.